Eye Diseases

Cataract is a systematical illness which is particularly diagnosised on old people. It can both come out as innate(congentinal cataract) or as a result of any trauma, which arises from loss of transparency and becoming blur of the lens of the eye, which is normally supposed to be transparent. Decomposition(opacification) of crystal lens reduces the transmittance of the light into the retina which leads to visual defect. This densness can occur whether in whole part of the lens or in some specific area, as it can both be a major or a minor case. This opacity is generally developed by time, rather than to happen instantly. (like steaming up of a glass)
Cataract;
• is not a film in front of the eye.
• does not arise from over-use of eyes.
• is not a cancer.
• is not epidemical.
• does not cause permanent visual disabilty.

• Elderliness (general reason)
• Metabolical Problems.
• Consengenious Marriage.
• Illnesses of baby during pregnancy.
• Use of medicine during pregnancy.
• Harmful sunrays.
• Medications like cortisone.
• Traumas of the eye.
• Previously experienced eye problems(uveitis,glaucoma) or medical operations.
• Radiotheraphy.
• Diabetes.

• Loss of vision which grows painlessly.
• Eye glare or reduction of sensitiveness of eye to the light.
• Blurred or distorted vision.
• Diplopia.
• Routine changes on eye-glass diopters..
• poor nightvision.
• To feel like looking behind a film.
• To need strong light for reading.
• Loss of gloss or wanning of colours.
• Moires around the light.

Development rate of cataract may vary person to person as well as eye to eye. Cataract, related with the age, generally develops slowly. Other cataract issues (particularly the ones which are observed on young-aged diabetics) grow faster and cause visual problems within a few months. Nevertheless it is not easy to estimate the grow-rate of cataract in every single person.

There is no other way to heal cataract other than surgery. The operation of removal of the opacified orginal eye lens is called “ Cataract Operation”. The lens which is used for substitution is called “Intraocular lens”(IOL).

Phaco-emulsification(PHACO) is contemporarily the most enhanced method. During the cataract surgeries which is carried out using “phaco”, opacified lens is decomposed and removed by the help of ultrasonographic waves and IOL is implanted into the eye.

Phaco-emulsification shortens the implantation period and makes it possible to execute the operation through a smaller incision size. Thus, post-operative astigmatism is avoided and patients can have a functional vision within a short time. Patients can resume their normal social life just after the operation.

In the beginning, cataract used to be waited to get developed. At these days the operations are being done in the earliest phase. If the patient faces one of the situations below, the operation is supposed to be executed promptly.

• If vision does not answer to daily life requirements anymore.
• If cataract is derived from an illness such as an infection.
• If cataract raises the ocular tension of patient.

The patients are aimed to see the distance, and to use glasses for near view, with the lens used in the surgery. However some patients still may need a long-distance glasses with low diopters.

The biggest problem faced after the cataract surgery is the necessity to use glasses for near vision. None the less, developping technology makes it possible to produce intraocular lenses which resolve the need of using glasses for distant and near view. These lenses are called Multifocal Intraocular Lenses.

1. Rigid Contact Lens: Rigid contact lenses may be used at the early phases. None the less, this does not avoid the progress of illness. These lenses fix the convexity of corneal lens and makes a clear vision possible by healing astigmatism. By the progress of keratoconus, these lenses may remain incapable and the vision fades gradually.
2. Corneal crosslinking: This is the method which stops the progression of keratoconus. As becoming the first option of healing keratoconus, Crosslink can stop the progress of the illness at the early phases..
3. Intra-Corneal Ring (INTACS):Corneal rings are consist of two small transparent half-rings. These are plastic materials compatible to the eye which can be placed to the created tunnels in cornea. They significantly fix the convexity problem.
4. Transplantation of Cornea (Keratoplasty):This method is usually used as a last option due to its costs and low numbers of Cornea donations.

The Intraocular lenses used for contemporary cataract surgeries are normally monofocal and require patients to use glasses at least for the near view. Multifocal Intraocular Lenses (MIOL) are designed to provide a functional distance and near view. Multifocal lenses which are implanted during the cataracts operation, let the patients to perform their daily activities without using glasses.

First of all, it is implanted to the patients with cataract. The eyes of every single patient may not be suitable for this kind of operation. It depends on the ocupation, age, social activities, reading habits, and intelectual level of the patients. People with cataract who wants a glass-free life, can proceed their daily regular activities after the implantation.

• Low vision which can not be fixed by using glasses,
• High-Sensitivity to light,
• Reading Difficulty,
• Diplopia,
• Squinting
• Headache

It is a deformative illness which appears when cornea has a sharp shape like a cone. It is usually bilateral and progressive. In later phases, gas permeable lenses are the only way to maintain the visual ability.

In the latest phases it is not possible to maintain the balance of the lens on the cornea due to sharpness of corneal area and being far from the central. In these phases surgical operations such as keratoplasty are accepted to be necessary.

In these cases, use of contact lens can be possible by a very special and hard examination which can be executed by ophthalmologists.